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Rye comes in many of the same forms as other grains, but with a twist – there are many kinds of rye ﬂour, and their names can be confusing.
This rye ﬁeld is in Finland, where rye is an important part of everyday meals. Most rye grown is “winter rye” which is planted in the autumn; the plants then develop during the springtime, and are harvested by August (in the Northern Hemisphere).
Whole rye kernels are usually referred to as “rye berries.” Rye growing in the ﬁeld has an inedible hull, which must be removed before milling or eating. In rye, the starchy endosperm constitutes about 80-85% of the whole kernel, the germ 2-3% and the outer bran layers about 10-15%. While the ﬁber in most grains is concentrated almost solely in the bran layers, some of rye’s ﬁber is also in the endosperm.
Cracked Rye or Rye Chops
Rye chops are the rye equivalent of cracked wheat or steel-cut oats. That is to say, the whole kernel (the rye berry) is cracked or cut into a few pieces that are quicker to cook than the completely intact rye berry.
Rye ﬂakes are created like rolled oats: by steaming rye berries and then rolling and drying them. You can add them to baked goods, cook them for porridge, and otherwise use as you would rolled oats.
Rye Flour and Rye Meal
There is absolutely no standardization of names for diﬀerent kinds of rye ﬂour and rye meal. The table below describes some of the terms used:
|White Rye Flour||Rye ﬂour containing only endosperm is often called “white rye ﬂour.” As with reﬁned wheat ﬂour, white rye ﬂour is missing many of the original nutrients in the rye kernel.|
|Cream or Light Rye Flour||When small traces of the bran have been included, the ﬂour is often called “cream” or “light” rye ﬂour.|
|Medium Rye Flour||If yet more bran is included, you get “medium rye ﬂour,” which begins to exhibit the ﬂavor and character of the rye.|
|Dark Rye Flour||Dark rye from some millers is a 100% whole grain ﬂour, while from others, it may include just the outer layers of the endosperm and some bran; from yet others, dark rye could be the leftovers from making white, light, or medium rye ﬂour.|
|Rye Meal||Also called “whole grain rye ﬂour,” rye meal contains all of the bran, germ and endosperm of the original rye kernel. Rye meal can be ground ﬁne, medium or coarse.|
|Pumpernickel Flour or Meal||Coarse, whole-grain rye ﬂour is called pumpernickel, and gives its name to the traditional German bread.|
Photos this page from Idabrel Bondia Pons, Kaisa Poutanen and iStock.