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Replacing White Rice with Whole Grain Bread May Lower Diabetes Risk.

White rice has displaced many traditional whole grains across Asia, so researchers wonder how white rice might relate to diabetes risk. In a study of 45,411 Chinese adults followed for 11 years, researchers found that replacing white rice with white bread and whole grain bread can reduce type 2 diabetes risk by 10% and 18% respectively, and that replacing white rice with noodles, red meat, or poultry might actually increase diabetes risk. Rice intake itself was not associated with higher type 2 diabetes. The authors conclude that “recommendations to reduce high white rice consumption in Asian populations for the prevention of [type 2 diabetes] may only be effective if substitute foods are considered carefully.”
European Journal of Nutrition. 2018 Dec 10. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1879-7. [Epub ahead of print] (Seah JYH et al.)

Replacing White Rice with Whole Grain Bread May Lower Diabetes Risk.

White rice has displaced many traditional whole grains across Asia, so researchers wonder how white rice might relate to diabetes risk. In a study of 45,411 Chinese adults followed for 11 years, researchers found that replacing white rice with white bread and whole grain bread can reduce type 2 diabetes risk by 10% and 18% respectively, and that replacing white rice with noodles, red meat, or poultry might actually increase diabetes risk. Rice intake itself was not associated with higher type 2 diabetes. The authors conclude that “recommendations to reduce high white rice consumption in Asian populations for the prevention of [type 2 diabetes] may only be effective if substitute foods are considered carefully.”
European Journal of Nutrition. 2018 Dec 10. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1879-7. [Epub ahead of print] (Seah JYH et al.)

Switch to Whole Wheat for Better Liver Health

The liver is important for metabolism, so researchers wonder how substituting whole grains might impact liver health. To assess this relationship, 50 overweight middle-aged adults were randomly assigned to a diet with 5 servings of whole wheat foods per day or 5 servings of refined wheat foods per day for 12 weeks, and compliance was confirmed by measuring biomarkers of whole wheat intake (alkylresorcinol). The refined wheat diet significantly increased liver fat, indicating that it may contribute to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, the whole wheat diet prevented an increase in liver fat, and better maintained liver health.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018 Dec 1;108(6):1264-1274. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy204. (Schutte S et al.)

Quality Trumps Quantity When Choosing Carbs and Fats

For decades, experts have debated the merits of a low-fat versus a low-carb diet. In this review, nutrition scientists of widely varying perspectives detailed evidence supporting both low-fat and low-carb diets, as well as points of consensus they could agree on. The experts agreed that carbohydrate quality (whole grains and low Glycemic Index foods over refined grains and sugars) and fat quality (unsaturated fats over trans fats and saturated fats) are much more important than the amount of carbohydrates or fat in the diet.
Science. 2018 Nov 16;362(6416):764-770. doi: 10.1126/science.aau2096. (Ludwig DS et al.)

Plant-Based Korean Diet with Brown Rice Can Improve Blood Pressure and Blood Sugar in Hospitalized Patients

Many people are surprised at how effective lifestyle changes can be when it comes to managing chronic disease. In this study, 160 hospital patients in South Korea with high blood pressure changed their diet to eat a plant-based (vegan) diet based on brown rice at each meal, with lots of kimchi and pickled vegetables, fermented soy foods, and lots of other vegetables (both raw and cooked). They averaged about 1,700 calories per day and did not eat any refined grains or any noodles or breads, relying on brown rice as the staple. Their sodium intake was quite high, at 7,382mg per day. However, after about 2 weeks, 86% of the patients were able to stop taking their blood pressure and diabetes medications, and their reduced blood pressure levels remained stable even after stopping the medications. Similarly, HBA1C reduced from 7.6 to 7.2, indicating better blood sugar management. More research is needed to see if similar approaches might be effective in other populations.
Journal of Ethnic Foods. 2018 Nov 1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2018.09.002 (Jung SJ et al.)

Whole Grains Linked with Better Blood Sugar Management

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions (high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high cholesterol, and excess fat around the waist) that can increase your risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes if they occur together. In this study, researchers randomly assigned more than 100 adults with metabolic syndrome from Finland and Italy to a diet with whole grains or a control diet without whole grains for 12 weeks. The whole grain group had better blood sugar control after meals. Researchers hypothesize that this may be because eating whole grains may help stimulate the production of certain chemical compounds (betaine compounds, such as pipecolic acid betaine) which are linked with improved insulin resistance and insulin secretion.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Sep 25. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy169. [Epub ahead of print]. (Kärkkäinen O et al.)

Whole Grains Linked with Lower Cholesterol

To better understand whole grains’ relationship with heart health, New Zealand’s Heart Foundation analyzed 19 meta analyses encompassing thousands of participants, for their September 2018 report entitled “Whole Grains and the Heart.” The authors conclude that “observational research suggests three [servings] of whole grains per day are associated with heart health benefits, and there are likely to be additional benefits with higher intakes. Intervention studies on risk factors are less compelling but show most consistent evidence of benefits for a small reduction in total and LDL cholesterol, especially in relation to oats and barley, and possibly improved [glycemic] control.”
Heart Foundation. 2018 Sept. (Gorton D et al.)

Whole Grains Linked with Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

Not all carbohydrates are created equal, and when it comes to diabetes prevention, whole grains may be particularly beneficial. To see how diabetes risk relates to whole grain intake, researchers analyzed the grain foods eaten by 55,465 older adults and monitored them for diabetes. Over the 15-year study period, each 16-gram serving of whole grains was linked with an 11% and 7% lower risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women, respectively. The researchers also looked at the benefit of different whole grain foods, noting that rye bread, whole-grain bread, and oatmeal/muesli were all significantly linked with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in both men and women.
Journal of Nutrition . 2018 Sep 1;148(9):1434-1444. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy112. (Kyrø C et al.)

Whole Grains Associated with Lower Risk of Diabetes

Whole grains are healthy carbohydrate foods that may be especially protective against type 2 diabetes. In this study, researchers analyzed the eating habits and health status of 55,465 middle-aged adults in Denmark. Those eating more whole grains were 11% and 7% less likely to develop type 2 diabetes (for men and women, respectively) over the 15-year study period. Rye bread, whole-grain bread, oatmeal, and muesli were all significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes for both men and women, indicating a benefit for whole grains in general, rather than just one specific type of whole grain food.
The Journal of Nutrition. 2018 Sep 1;148(9):1434-1444. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy112. (Kyrø C et al.)

Low Carb Diets Linked with Early Death

There are countless different diets out there, from low carb to high carb to everything in between. But which eating pattern is linked with longer lives? Scientists are on a mission to find out. Researchers analyzed the eating habits and health outcomes of 15,428 adults in the US, following them for 25 years. The “sweet spot” for the lowest risk of mortality was diets that had 50-55% of their calories from carbohydrates, especially those with lots of plant foods, like whole grain bread, nuts, vegetables, and peanut butter. This amount aligns with traditional diets (such as the Mediterranean diet), as well as the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans. On the other hand, low-carb diets that had lots of meat were linked with higher mortality.
The Lancet Public Health. 2018 Aug 16. pii: S2468-2667(18)30135-X. [Epub ahead of print.] (Seidelmann SB et al.)

Gluten Free Kids' Foods No Healthier than Regular Kids' Foods

Many parents buy gluten-free foods for their kids because they think that those foods are healthier. But unless you have a medically-diagnosed reason to avoid gluten (such as celiac disease), evidence suggests otherwise. Researchers in Canada went to 2 major supermarket chains and purchased all foods marketed to kids (with the exception of candy, soda, and a few other “junk foods”) – 374 products total. They then analyzed the nutrition labels of the foods, to see how products marketed as gluten free stacked up to those not marketed as gluten free. For a more direct comparison, they then identified 43 gluten-free foods marketed to kids that had a non-gluten-free counterpart, and compared nutrition between the matched products. Overall, nutrition was poor among all kids’ products, gluten-free or not, and there were few significant differences. Specifically, products marketed as gluten-free had slightly lower levels of sodium, but slightly higher levels of added sugar. Additionally, a higher proportion of gluten-free products had high levels of trans fat. The researchers concluded that “[gluten-free] supermarket foods that are targeted at children are not nutritionally superior to regular child targeted foods and may be of greater potential concern because of their sugar content,” adding that “parents who substitute [gluten-free] products for their product equivalents (assuming [gluten-free] products to be healthier) are mistaken.”
Pediatrics. 2018 Aug;142(2). pii: e20180525. (Elliott C et al.)

For Healthy Teeth, Choose Whole Grains Instead of Refined

Sugar build up between your teeth can cause cavities and other dental problems, but certain food choices can have a protective effect. To see how different carbohydrates play a role, researchers analyzed 28 studies comparing rapidly digestible starches (refined grains) to slowly digestible starches (whole grains). Some evidence suggests that whole grains lower the risk of oral cancer and gum infection (periodontitis), and that refined grains may significantly increase cavities, but more research is needed. The researchers conclude that “the best available evidence suggests that only [rapidly digestible starches] adversely affects oral health.”
Journal of Dental Research.  2018 Aug 3. [Epub ahead of print.] (Halvorsrud K et al.)

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