Rye

Whole Grains Associated with Lower Risk of Diabetes

Whole grains are healthy carbohydrate foods that may be especially protective against type 2 diabetes. In this study, researchers analyzed the eating habits and health status of 55,465 middle-aged adults in Denmark. Those eating more whole grains were 11% and 7% less likely to develop type 2 diabetes (for men and women, respectively) over the 15-year study period. Rye bread, whole-grain bread, oatmeal, and muesli were all significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes for both men and women, indicating a benefit for whole grains in general, rather than just one specific type of whole grain food.
The Journal of Nutrition. 2018 Sep 1;148(9):1434-1444. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy112. (Kyrø C et al.)

Diabetes / Insulin / Glucose
Diet 
Traditional Diets, General

Whole Grain Wheat and Rye Both Linked with Gut Health

Whole grains are a popular healthy choice, but between whole wheat and whole rye, does it matter what you choose? Scientists put these grains to the test, randomly assigning 70 overweight but otherwise healthy, middle-aged adults to a 6-week diet replacing all of their grain foods with whole wheat, whole rye, or refined wheat. There were no significant differences between the whole wheat and whole rye groups. Despite seeing no significant changes to the composition of the gut microbiome, the refined wheat group saw a greater drop in fecal butyrate (compounds associated with better health). The whole grain groups were less likely to feel bloated and more likely to have regular stools, but also more likely to pass gas. The authors conclude that “whole-grain foods have the potential for maintaining or improving some subjective and functional markers of gut health compared to refined grain foods.”
Journal of Nutrition. 2017 Nov;147(11):2067-2075. (Vuholm S et al.)

Digestion / Regularity
Gut Health
Diet 
Traditional Diets, General

Whole Grains Linked with Weight Loss, Less Inflammation

Why worry about calorie counting when whole grains can keep you satiated and help you lose weight? Researchers randomly assigned 50 Danish adults to a whole grain or refined grain diet for 8 weeks each, with a 6-week washout period in between. All of the participants were overweight, obese or had large waist sizes, and also had slightly high levels of blood sugar, cholesterol, or blood pressure before the study. The participants lost significantly more weight on the whole grain diet (- 0.4 pounds) compared to the refined grain diet (+ 2 pounds). This is likely because people naturally ate fewer calories on the whole grain diet, as whole grains are more satiating. Additionally, the whole grain diet (especially rye foods) significantly lowered inflammation (measured by IL-6 and CRP). However, the researchers noted no significant changes in insulin sensitivity (an indicator of how well your body is able to manage blood sugar), or the gut microbiome over the 8-week study.
Gut. 2017 Nov 1. pii: gutjnl-2017-314786. [Epub ahead of print.] (Roager HM et al.)  

Diabetes / Insulin / Glucose
Gut Health
Hunger / Satiety
Inflammation
Weight Control / BMI
Diet 
Traditional Diets, General

Certain Rye Products Are Especially Satiating

Rye has long been studied for its satiating properties, but researchers wonder why rye leaves you feeling fuller for longer, and whether certain rye products are more filling than others. To test these differences, researchers provided various whole grain rye products (sourdough bread, flakes, puffs, and smoothies – each with the same number of calories) to 26 participants, who resumed their usual diet and exercise routine for two days between each intake of the rye samples. The rye puffs and rye bread, which have a porous structure, were the most filling, whereas the liquid beverage was the least filling. The porous structure of the rye puffs and bread is thought to stretch and fill up the stomach, signaling to your body that you’re satisfied.
Food Quality and Preference. 2017 September;60:178-187. (Pentikainen S et al.)

Hunger / Satiety
Diet 
Traditional Diets, General

Whole Grains May Prevent Early Death

Whole grains (like rye, oats, and whole wheat) have a strong history in traditional Scandinavian cuisine, but as in other regions, the food landscape is changing and refined grains have replaced some traditional foods. To see how eating whole grains relates to mortality, researchers analyzed the diets of over 120,000 people in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.  The scientists found that those who ate the most whole grains had significantly lower risk of death from all causes. When analyzing individual whole grains, the researchers found significantly lower mortality rates in those who ate the most whole grain breakfast cereals, whole grain bread, oats, rye (only statistically significant for men), and whole wheat. These findings support existing evidence that whole grains may contribute to longevity.
British Journal of Nutrition. 2015 July 23:1-16. (Johnsen NF et al.) [Epub ahead of print]

Longevity / Mortality
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Whole Grain Rye May Improve Cholesterol

Rye, the principal grain consumed in traditional Scandinavian diets, is a fiber-rich food associated with satiety, weight management, and blood sugar control. In a European study, 158 people were assigned to either a standard Nordic diet (with lots of refined grains) or a healthy Nordic diet (rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and low fat dairy) consuming their usual calorie level. Whole grain wheat and rye intake was verified using blood biomarkers. Researchers found that a high intake of whole grain rye (as measured using a plasma biomarker) was associated with decreased LDL (“bad” cholesterol), and an improved LDL to HDL ratio, while the biomarker for whole wheat consumption was not associated with any change in cholesterol.
PLoS One. 2014 Oct 23;9(10):e110827. (Magnusdottir OK et al.)

Cholesterol / Serum Lipids
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MANY ANTIOXIDANTS IN WHOLE GRAINS

While fruits and vegetables are known as sources of healthy antioxidants and phenolic compounds, research increasingly shows that whole grains contain them too. In this review, researchers analyzed the total phenolic contents, phenolic acid profile and antioxidant activity of several whole grains, including wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat and millet. The review shows that whole grains contain a number of phytochemicals (including antioxidants) and significantly exhibit antioxidant activity. Researchers conclude that the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significant health benefits including prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds. 
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2014 July 30. [epub ahead of print] (Van Hung P et al.)

Cancer
Diabetes / Insulin / Glucose
Diet Quality / Nutrients
Heart / Cardiovascular Disease
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